Transit Oriented Development (TOD) is compact, mixed-use development near transit facilities that promotes sustainable communities by providing people of all ages and incomes with improved access to transportation and housing choices, reduced transportation costs that reduce the negative impacts of automobile travel on the environment and the economy. The following examples illustrate how some jurisdictions are using transit oriented development to improve the quality of life in neighborhoods.
Preservation of Affordable Housing Near Transit
This report is designed to help community leaders, community development corporations (CDCs) and
nonprofit affordable housing developers engage in preserving affordable housing near transit. The report
describes the strategies and tools that Atlanta, Denver, Seattle and Washington, D.C. used to preserve
affordable housing near transit.
Affordable Housing Preservation
This issue of HUD’s publication Evidence Matters explores a range of strategies designed to promote affordable housing preservation at the national, state, and local levels. It includes articles that indicate rehabilitation of existing housing is more efficient than building new units and allows families to take advantage of improvements such as better performing schools, improved job access, and increased access to transit. It also identifies research tools that can be used to evaluate the new and existing affordable housing sites accord¬ing to their access to jobs and transit, driving costs, physical environment, and neighborhood socioeconomic characteristic.
National Housing Preservation Database
The National Housing Preservation Database created by the Public and Affordable Housing Research Corporation (PAHRC) and the National Low Income Housing Coalition (NLIHC) provides communities with the information they need to effectively preserve their stock of public and affordable housing. The database incorporates all available data on federally subsidized housing properties and includes properties receiving assistance from any of the following programs: HUD Project-Based Rental Assistance (including properties with Rent Supplement, Rental Housing Assistance Program, and Project Rental Assistance contracts); Section 202 Direct Loan Program for Housing for the Elderly or Handicapped; HUD insurance programs (such as the Section 236 or Section 221(d)(3) Below Market Interest Rate programs); Low-Income Housing Tax Credit Program; HOME Rental Assistance; Section 515 Rural Rental Housing Loan; the Guaranteed Rural Rental Housing Program (Section 538); and public housing. The National Housing Preservation Database can be filtered by location, funding stream, or 'at risk of loss' status.
Economic Impact of LIHTC Along Transit Corridors in Denver
This study explores the impact of building new LIHTC apartments in a 10-county Denver Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) and primarily along transit corridors. During the first year, direct and indirect, local economic impacts included $57.6 million in local income, $5.0 million in taxes and other revenue for local governments, and 732 local jobs.
Preserving Affordable Housing Near Transit
This report analyses potential loss of affordable housing near transit in 20 metropolitan areas during the next five years and contains policy recommendations for federal, state, and local policy makers. Geo-coded data that was used in the report is being made available to assist practitioners interested in identifying projects that may be at risk due to the expiration of existing section 8 contracts.
Report | Data
National Housing Trust Expiring Sec 8 Contracts Database
Data includes state reports of properties with project-based Section 8 contracts expiring over the next five years. Reports include information about property location, housing subsidy expiration date, physical inspection scores, ownership, management, and mortgage terms (if the mortgage is HUD insured).
CEDAC Expiring Use Atlas
The Community Economic Development Assistance Corporation in Boston, MA maintains a database of over 125,000 housing units in 1,470 projects located throughout the state of Massachusetts. These properties are privately owned but were produced using state and/or federal housing resources. Most funding programs required that owners commit to maintaining the properties for a particular period of time – typically 20 to 40 years. CEDAC uses this database of affordable housing projects to identify when specific projects are eligible to end affordability restrictions and convert to market rate housing.
Managing Neighborhood Change: Selected Anti-Displacement Strategies in Practice
The Metropolitan Area Planning Council of Boston produced a matrix of case studies-based anti-displacement strategies to inform Medford and Somerville’s interests in undertaking strategies to manage neighborhood change related to the potential Green Line Route 16 extension. The matrix was based upon a literature review of academic and non-academic reports released over the last ten years, which outlined anti-displacement policies and strategies grounded in successful case study examples of their application in neighborhood, city/town, or regional contexts.
Better Coordination of Housing and Transportation
This report outlines strategies developed by FTA and HUD to continue and expand coordination in the area of mixed-income and affordable housing near transit.
Realizing the Potential: Expanding Housing Near Transit
FTA and HUD funded study examines five case study regions - Boston, Charlotte, Denver, Minneapolis, and Portland to better understand the proactive strategies being undertaken to create and preserve affordable housing near transit.
Preserving and Promoting Diverse Transit Oriented Development
The report outlines the benefits of mixed-income transit-oriented developments and the challenges to seizing the mixed-income TOD opportunity, and makes a set of practical recommendations to create more mixed-income, mixed-race housing in transit zones.
Financing Transit-Oriented Development
This report prepared for the Bay Area Metropolitan Transit Commission outlines financial and regulatory barriers that impede transit-oriented development, the role of redevelopment agencies, market and private developers, and the role of county and regional agencies, and several case studies.
Housing Incentive Program
Bay Area Metropolitan Transportation Commission's Housing Incentive Program (HIP) provides grants of up to $2,500 per bedroom for housing within 1/3 mile of major transit stations.
Maximizing Investment Around Transit
Provides examples of how transit-oriented development in Boston, Denver, Portland, and the Bay Area has the potential to catalyze community revitalization and private investment.
Invest Prince George’s
This 58-page resource highlights the opportunities for development around each of Prince George’s County, Maryland’s 15 Metro stations and provides detailed about parking spaces, train use and zoning plans for the area. Prince George’s County’s Metrorail stations enjoy short commutes to downtown Washington, D.C., an Amtrak station on the Northeast Corridor, 30 minute rail access to National Airport, and bus and rail connections to Baltimore-Washington Airport.
Urban Transit Hub Tax Credit
New Jersey initiative designed to encourage investment and job growth around urban transit rail stations in nine urban municipalities – Camden, East Orange, Elizabeth, Hoboken, Jersey City, Newark, New Brunswick, Paterson, and Trenton. The Urban Transit Hub Tax Credit Program provides tax credits equal to 80 percent to 100 percent of the qualified capital investments made within an eight-year period.
Summary of TOD Incentive Programs
Provides a summary of incentive programs in the regions of Atlanta, Georgia; Austin, Texas; and Sacramento, San Francisco, San Diego, and San Mateo, California.
Livable Centers Initiative
The Atlanta Regional Commission’s Livable Centers Initiative program connects homes, shops and offices, enhances streetscapes and sidewalks, emphasizes pedestrians, improves access to transit options and expands housing choices.
Explains how Austin has made a direct commitment towards focusing growth around transit facilities by supporting Transit-Oriented Development (TOD). The TOD Guidebook and other documents outline the Station Area Planning process and lists several TOD resources.
TOD HOME | Guidebook
California Blueprint Planning
The California Blueprint Planning Grant program contributes to the vision of improved quality of life by addressing future growth through the integration of transportation, housing, land use, environmental resources, other infrastructure, and services. This integration addresses the need for integrated planning requirements included in Regional Transportation Guidelines and the Regional Housing Needs Allocation Process.
Denver Coordination of Housing and Transportation Planning
Denver's 2008-2012 Consolidated Plan indicates city agencies whose funds are not covered by the Consolidated Plan continue to be a part of the development and implementation of the Consolidated Plan and Action Plan. The city's Office of Economic Development and Department of Community Planning and Department work in partnership on a Transit Oriented Development Initiative to create workforce housing near current and future transit locations. Objective 1.4 in the plan targets TOD funding for renter households with incomes at or below 30 percent of the area median. The City of Denver is establishing a $15 million TOD Fund that will provide financing to preserve affordable housing within one half mile of existing and new rail service and a quarter mile of frequent bus routes.
Consolidated Plan | TOD Fund
This plan includes a description of how the City of Evanston consults with adjacent jurisdictions on regional planning issues. City staff work with Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning, the Metropolitan Planning Council, on long-term transportation projects such as the Yellow Line Station infill project and the Purple Line Visioning that is currently being conducted by the Chicago Transit Authority. The plan also describes Neighborhood Revitalization Strategy Areas submitted as part of this Consolidated Plan to further target resources to the neighborhoods of Southeast Evanston and West Evanston that were severely impacted by the mortgage foreclosure crisis.
Hennepin County, MN
Since 2003, Hennepin County has provided $22 million in Transit Oriented Development funding for more than 50 projects that links housing and economic development with transit corridors, increased density near transit corridors, increased ridership of transit services and leveraged other public and private resources.
Indianapolis/Marion County, IN
The Indianapolis/Marion County consolidated plan prepared by the city Department of Metropolitan Development includes a sections dealing with transportation planning and strategies for investing over $29 million of Neighborhood Stabilization Program funding. The grantee reported 100% of HUD funded housing projects funded are within a 10-minute walk of public transportation. In the Indianapolis region, the City of Indianapolis Department of Metropolitan Development is the designated MPO. The MPO staff is comprised of the planners from the Transportation Section of the Division of Planning with the Department of Metropolitan Development.
San José, CA
The Consolidated Plan for the City of San José, CA describes how long commutes to work effectively makes housing more expensive when both housing and transportation costs are considered. As part of its Envision 2040 General Plan Update, San José is planning for connections between jobs, housing, and transportation so residents can live and work in the same community.
State of Maryland
The State of Maryland is in the process of preparing and determining the parameters of a State Development Plan that includes a State Housing Plan and State Transportation Plan and how these plans work together with local land use plans. The draft Parameters of the State Housing Plan point out that focusing investments in housing and related neighborhood development in areas close to job centers and transit is critical for achieving State goals for Smart Growth. (Appendix J2)
King County TOD Projects
Provides examples of transit oriented development projects, including Overlake Park-and-Ride TOD project in Redmond, WA, a joint development of King County, the King County Housing Authority, and a private developer using tax-exempt financing and federal housing tax credits.
Federal Transit Administration
Provides overview of transit oriented development, links to FTA programs, and reports.
Transit Oriented Development and Jobs
Identifies 25 examples of how community groups, CDCs, and developers helped provide working families with affordable housing and employment opportunities through transit oriented development.
Saving Affordable Housing Near Transit
This report identifies strategies for preservation of federally assisted affordable housing near existing or proposed public transportation in 8 cities.